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The term health refers to the various levels of functionalities or efficiencies of metabolism in any living organism. In medical terms, it refers to a person's general conditions of body and mind that enables him to be free from any form of illness, pain or injury (Wallace, 2003). The World Health Organization refers to the term health as a complete state of social, physical and mental wellbeing of any individual. It further states that the term health does not merely refer to the absence of infirmities or injuries. The term comfort, on the other hand, refers to the senses developed by any individual that brings about psychological and physical ease (Nordisk, 1999). It is argued to be the lack of any form of hardship and can be achieved through the creation of various pleasant memories in the human mind. To the healthcare personnel, it is considered one of their top most priorities as they aim at providing the sick some comfort. This paper, therefore, gives a report on the various aspects of health and comfort.
The term operative temperature refers to a temperature that is uniform and produces black radiations within the enclosure in which it exists (Nordenfelt, 2006). This temperature enables the people who are put within the area it occupies also to exchange the same amount of heat with this environment. This area is where operative temperature exists through processes such as convection and radiations like any other environment that is considered none-uniform. It is also referred to as equivalent or effective temperatures and it refers to the combined effects of radiant and convective heat transfers.
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An instrument called eupatheoscope is used to measure this temperature. Its mathematical formulae can be used to approximate the relationships in individuals with metabolic rates of between 1.0 and 1.3 met and not exposed to wind and direct sunlight. This temperature is applied in thermal comfort and heat transfer analysis, in buildings and transportation. Its determination is based on a psychrometric chart that shows temperatures of dry bulbs and indicates in its x-axis that the standard thermal conditions of the environment for human occupancy are 55.
One's adaptive considerations to any thermal environment start when there are several ranges of factors that will make the individual achieve the various thermal comforts. The temperature within the brain acts as the center upon which the human body temperature is controlled. The brain temperature creates equilibrium between the body temperature and the environmental temperatures. This happens by enabling the individual initiate certain actions that are either psychological or behavioral in nature that helps them maintain the brain temperatures at closer limits.
In the event that there is a change within the environment, the brain temperature deviates from the close limits and initiates psychological responses and in the event that the responses are not enough to ensure there is some degree of acceptable comfort, the person will them take certain actions that will ensure that the temperatures within the brain are restored to the required limits. The actions might include the modification of the heat generated internally, modification of the rate at which the body losses heat, thermal environment modification and selection of a totally different environment. Internal heat generation can be done through shivering or muscular tension, body heat loss changed through sweating or vasoregulation, modification of the thermal environment done through insulation or selection of a new environment by moving closer to a source of heat like a fire.
Relevant Air Pollutants Hazardous To Human Health
Pollution of the air involves the introduction of particles, chemicals or materials that are biological in the atmosphere that can cause diseases, damage living organisms, cause death or discomfort to the human beings (Steckel & Floud, 1997). The hazardous substances can either damage the natural environment in which organisms and human beings live in or totally build a new one. Substances that are released in the air but are harmful to the health of the human beings and other living organisms are referred to as air pollutants, and they include elements such as sulphur oxides that is majorly produced by the volcanic eruption, nitrogen oxides that are majorly produced during thunderstorms and have sharp and biting odor. It is a popular air pollutant and is considered extremely dangerous to human health.
Others include carbon monoxide, volatile compounds that are organic, ammonia, dust and smoke. These pollutants cause respiratory complications, lung cancer and heart diseases. Control technologies should be used to reduce them, and legislation should also be instituted to help in the control of the air pollutants.
Main Elements Influencing the Daylight Factor
The term daylight factor refers to the general ration of the levels of the external lights and the internal lights (Nordickato & Hiyama, 2012). The calculation of the illuminance of light, one has first to determine the total amount of light that is received from both the outside and the inside of any building. Light can penetrate inside a house through various points such as apertures, glazed windows and roof light. Daylight factors are usually used in the architectural designs whereby they are used to assess the internal lighting levels that are natural. The calculation of daylight factors requires a process that is complex in nature that involves calculations.
Main Elements Influencing Room Utilization Factor
The manner in which a room is utilized is a crucial issue both from a social perspective and an economic perspective. The architects of the house should develop high and quality strategies that will ensure the rooms are adequately utilized so that it allows for the quality air within the rooms (Nordickato & Hiyam, 2012). The strategies should allow for proper ventilation of the house in a manner that there would be free circulation of air within the building. Either, the strategies should also involve the usage of appropriate building materials that are healthy and not harmful to the human conditions. The materials should be able to provide good indoor air quality when they are used holistically. The designers can also employ the usage of breathing walls so that the room's humidity are moderated and controlled in a manner that will ensure there is comfort for the occupants of the houses. This will also ensure that the likelihood of a fungal growth within the building walls is eliminated in totality.
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The illuminance levels within any room heavily depend on the various activities or the intended use of the room. Most standard rooms have their upper limits for the glare to stand at 20 while their lower limits for the glare to stand at 50. They also have to factor in the color renditions of rooms to ensure that they conform to the requirements of the designs. Either, these particulars must be within a range that will ensure the health and the comfort of the occupants are not interfered with, and the event that these elements are comprised, necessary changes should be done to ensure that the comfort and health of the occupants is given first priority.