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Vasectomy is a preferred method of birth control as it is termed to be a safe way and a simpler to perform operation. It has moderate cases of reported adverse effect such as the psychosocial effects. Social consequences following the vasectomy procedure as well as the psychological effects have been on the rise. The aim of the research study will be to determine how the men who have undergone the procedure have been affected both psychologically and socially. The dependent variable in the research study will be the vasectomy procedure, whereas the independent variable will be the psychosocial effects on men. The delimitations of the survey will be that the person conducting the research will have full control over the selection of the participants in the study as well as have the male respondents only for the study. The theoretical rationale that will be used for the survey is the Peplau framework that describes nursing as a healing art that assists the patients in receiving medical care. The significance of the study will be to determine the effects of vasectomy procedure in men and work towards minimizing them for the procedure to be effective in pregnancy prevention. The method of data collection to be used is the qualitative approach method that is going to be interpretive to allow for the voices of the participants as well as their experiences. The population of the study will be 300 members, where a sample will be selected to represent the community. The technique that will be used is the simple random sampling technique to select the sample and it will ensure that each participant has an equal chance of being selected in the sample. A sample of 24 participants will be used. For the interview process, a tape recorder will be used to record the information for data analysis. The questionnaires will be collected after two weeks for the data analysis. The data will then be analyzed, using the descriptive methods, which will use the frequencies, charts, and graphs to represent the data.

Psychosocial Effects of Vasectomy in Men

The Research Objective

Vasectomy is one of the standard methods of the permanent family planning methods used by the men today. It has been estimated that there have been more than 354,000 vasectomies performed to men by 2002 in the United States (Hoga, Rodolpho, Sato, Nunes, & Borges, 2014). According to Zini (2010), vasectomy does not have any impact on the sexual satisfaction of the males, their marital satisfaction, or the frequency of their sexual intercourse. However, studies conducted by Ram?rez-Pimiento and Navarro-Vargas (2016), show that the vasectomy procedure can have adverse effects on men such as causing prostate cancer, fear, and psychological changes. The research on the impact of vasectomy in men is little, as it seems to have a psychosocial effect on the men after they undergo the procedure (Hoga et al., 2014). The increase in the number of people by the vasectomy procedure makes the need to do more research on the psychosocial effects that the vasectomy leads to in men.

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Definitions

Some of the important words that will be used in the research study will be vasectomy - a birth control method used by men, and it is usually a permanent method, meaning that it cannot be reversed. The psychosocial effects refer to the psychological and the social effects that men go through after the completion of the vasectomy procedure.

Information on the effects of vasectomy is crucial as it determines the safety of the procedure and the patient care that can be offered to a man who undergoes the procedure. Large amounts of data are generated on the effects of the vasectomy procedure. The practitioners in the field who conduct the procedure and give the patient care to the clients hold the data. Assessment of the information shows that there are several cases of patients who suffer from psychological effects after undergoing the procedure. The dependent variable in the research study is vasectomy procedure whereas the independent variable is the psychosocial effects that can be manipulated.

Delimitations of the Study

The delimitations of the study will be that the researcher will have complete control over the selection of the participants in the study. The population will consist of males who have already undergone the vasectomy procedure. The participants will range between the ages of 26 years to 65 years.

Theoretical Rationale

The research is based on the Peplau framework that describes nursing as a healing art. The work of the nurses is to assist the patients who are sick and in need of the patient care. Nursing is an interpersonal process that involves the interaction between more than two persons that also have a common goal. The common goal in the nursing practice gives the incentives for the process and shows whether the nurses and the clients respect one another since both of them learn and grow from the interaction. According to the theory, a person learns when he or she is subjected to stimuli in the environment and when he or she reacts to it.

Peplau framework defines a man as an individual who strives on his way to reduce the tension generated from his needs. The client is the person with a felt need. Health is defined as a word or a symbol that infers the forward movement of a character as well as other human processes that are involved in the direction of creativeness and community living among others (Peden, Laubha, Wells, Staal, & Rittman, 2010). Peplau also encourages the nurse to take into consideration the patient's culture and his values when the client adjusts to the routine of the hospital. Nursing is considered a significant therapeutical and interpersonal process. The therapeutic nurse-patient relationship is a planned relationship that deals with the patients needs, problems, and ideas.

There are four phases involved in the nurse-patient relationship that comprises of the orientation phase that is often directed by the nurse and that involves the engagement of the client in the treatment (Peden et al., 2010). It also involves the provision of information and explanations to the patient on the vasectomy procedure. The second phase is the identification phase that starts when the patient works independently, expressing his feelings, and when he starts getting better. The exploitation phase involves the patients having full access to the offered services. In the resolution phase, the patient does not need the services any longer ad he gives up the dependent behavior, which terminates the relationship.

According to the Peplau framework, anxiety has been defined as the original response to any psychic threat to the patient undergoing the vasectomy procedure. The types of anxiety faced are mild, moderate, severe, and the panic one. In the relationship, the nurse has a role to play of a teacher and a stranger as well as a leader and a counselor to the patient. There are certain assumptions of using the framework such as that the nurse and the patient can give a good interaction (Peden et al., 2010). It is also assumed that the communication and the skills of interviewing are important tools used by the nurses. The nurse and the patient of the vasectomy procedure are assumed to mature from the therapeutic interaction.

Problem Statement

The current situation of the vasectomy procedure is that some effects on men have been linked to this procedure. These effects include the psychological and social ones such as keeping the operation as a secret to their colleagues as well as experiencing stress and depression after undergoing the procedure. The context of the problem is that the procedure does not have any impact on the sexual satisfaction of such men, their marital satisfaction, or the frequency of their sexual intercourse (Zini, 2010). However, it has been found out that vasectomy causes stigma after some time to most of the men who go through it (Ram?rez-Pimiento & Navarro-Vargas, 2016). According to Rayala and Viera (2013), two out of ten men have been found to be affected by the procedure and to experience the negative psychological effects. The cost of not fixing the problem is that the men who suffer from the effects develop other major problems such as being impotent. Little information about the psychosocial effects after the vasectomy procedure exists and therefore, more research should be done to understand the various effects of vasectomy. This study will contribute to the solution of the problem as it would evaluate the long-term psychological effects on men and clarify how these effects can be reduced by improving the patient care.

Significance of the Problem

 
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The purpose of the research study would be to examine how the men who have undergone the vasectomy procedure are affected psychologically and socially after undergoing this procedure. The psychological effects can place a man at a higher risk of complications that develop after the procedure. The primary goal of the research study is to determine the various psychosocial effects of the vasectomy procedure in the men, which will determine what can be done to reduce the effects related to the vasectomy procedure in men. By achieving this goal in the study, the understanding of the effects of vasectomy would increase, thus improving the patient care that is offered unto the men who undergo the procedure.

Review of the Related Literature

Vasectomy is among the methods that are used for birth control in men as it helps them to take full responsibility for the fertility control. The availability of vasectomy widens the choices that are used for the methods of family planning, and it contributes to the involvement of the male partners in the family planning. The procedure has been found to be effective in the pregnancy prevention regardless of the modification of the behaviors of the men who have undergone the vasectomy procedure (Rauscher & Durham, 2015). The non-scalpel procedure has been found to be the most effective and convenient method for the client as it is safe and simple to perform. Sterilization is the most widely used method of family planning, but it has been found out that the number of men who have been sterilized for the purpose of pregnancy prevention is less than the number of women (Shih, Dub?, Sheinbein, Borrero, & Dehlendorf, 2013). The lowest rates of sterilization are found in Africa where a 3% of the women in the reproductive age are sterilized, whereas the number of sterilized male partners is negligible.

The use of the method is determined by the males attitude that causes its underutilization. They gave a negative attitude towards the use of the vasectomy procedure due to the effects that it brings. Recent studies show that the male involvement in the vasectomy procedure is low due to the unwillingness and lack of useful information on the mens needs (Shih et al., 2013). The literature has tended to concentrate more on the post-operative concepts of the vasectomy method rather than the effects of the method, including social ones. The concerns about the males being pressured to undergo the operation by their partners and through the marketing of the procedure have pervaded the research on the vasectomy procedure. The concerns about the pressure have resulted in the psychosocial effects on men. Men have been reported as having been speaking of sexual satisfaction after undergoing the vasectomy procedure, but it has been taken as their defensive mechanism (Rosevear & Wald, 2012).

Masculinity and sexual performance have been taken as significant and to be affected negatively by the vasectomy operations. Men view the vasectomy procedure to be positive, and most have taken it unwillingly. An investigation was done on the relationship between the adjustment and the defensive mechanism of the vasectomy method, and it was found out that the defensiveness is associated with the better adjustments of the vasectomy procedure after six months (Hoga et al., 2014). The authors made conclusions that the psychological defensiveness did not acknowledge the unpleasant psychological effect that came with the procedure. Having a vasectomy operation performed, a man shows how responsible he is and he is serious about the pregnancy prevention of his female partner (Terry & Braun, 2011). There were early indications that vasectomy led to the men feeling less confident and not speaking out about the procedure on social media. Two-thirds of the men who had undergone the procedure chose not to discuss it with their colleagues, as they feared that they would be criticized for making the decision. Thus, they would prefer to keep quiet.

Method

The method of qualitative approach will be used to address the research question of the study. The qualitative approach method is interpretive, and it will allow for the voices of the participants and their experiences to be heard as well as the meanings of the procedure to be expressed. Later, this information will be used for data analysis. The decision to use the interpretive method was arrived at when it was found out that men were now willing to talk about the procedure and its effect on them openly. The sampling technique that will be used will be a simple random sampling one as it will be easier to select a group from the population. Each will have an equal chance to be selected and be included in the sample.

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The study population of this research will be 300 individuals, and the sample size that will be used to represent the population will be 24 participants. The participants will range between the age of 26 years to the age of 65 years, and they will all be males. The amount of time, in which the participants will participate in the interviews, will be one month to 35 years. The timeframe for the data collection will be two weeks where different participants will be interviewed. The instruments that are going to be used in the research study will be interviews and questionnaires. The questionnaires will have open-ended and close questions. They will enable the respondents to disclose the information that he will not feel comfortable to disclose in a face-to-face interview. The questionnaires will be administered to the men who have undergone the vasectomy procedure after a period of one month to more than five years. The respondents will be required to fill the questionnaires openly, and they will be collected after a period of two weeks for the purpose of data analysis. A procedure will be used to conduct the interview process. The chosen members will be required to avail themselves to a selected central place where the interview process will be conducted. A tape recorder will be used for recording of the interviews for the easier capturing of the data. In the case of a methodological problem, such as a language barrier, an interpreter will be present to ensure that the information is delivered for the purpose of data analysis. The information given will only be used for academic purposes, so it will be held confidential.

After the collection of the data, it would be analyzed by the use of the descriptive data where the averages, mean, and mode of the data will be calculated. Measures of distribution will also be used in the data analysis where frequencies and percentages will be used to analyze the data. Charts and graphs will be used to explain the outcomes of the data analysis.

I. Work Plan

Steps in the Research Plan

Deadline for the Completion

Submission of the proposal

 

Design of the research plan

 

Gaining access to interview the men who have undergone the vasectomy procedure

 

Literature review

 

Defining the sample size, the sampling frame, and the setting up of the selection criteria

 

Design and testing of the questionnaire

 

Design of final questionnaire

 

Interviews and posting of the questionnaire

 

Editing of the completed questionnaire, grouping and coding of the data, and entering the data in the computer

 

Design and test a computer program to analyze the data

 

Draft analysis of the qualitative data

 

Analysis of the data

 

Report of findings

 

Present the final research outcomes

 

The work plan will involve the submission of the research proposal first, followed by the designing of the research plan. Gaining of access to interview the men who have undergone the procedure and literature review will be done. The sample size and the sampling frame will be defined. The questionnaire will be designed and tested before designing the final questionnaire that will be used. Interviews will then be done together with the posting of the questionnaires to the respondents. After the completion of the questionnaires, they will be edited and the data coded and fed in the computers. A computer program will be designed and tested followed by the analysis of the data. A report of the findings will be made, and the summary of the outcomes will finalize the study.

II Budget

Item

Quantity

Cost Per Item

Total Cost

Tape recorders

5

$450

$2,250

Interview tapes

20

$400

$8,000

Printing papers

300

$1.20

$3,600

pens

40

$2

$80

Travel costs

   

$2,000

Accommodation costs

   

$4,500

Total expenses

   

$20,430

Overhead costs @10%

   

$2,043

Total cost

   

$22,473

The direct costs will amount to $13,930 that comprises of the purchase of items such as the interview tapes, tape recorders, pens, and the printing papers. The travel costs will amount to $2,000, and the accommodation costs will be $4,500. The total expenses will be $20,430 with an overhead cost of 10% of the total costs. The total cost of the project will be $22,473.

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