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Government is the main institution that organizes, directs, and supervises joint activities and relationships of people, social groups, classes, and associations. The form of government is determined primarily by its essence and type. The concept of the form of government means a method of external expression of the inner state that is determined by the structure and legal status of the supreme bodies of state power. Therefore, one should distinguish some of its forms such as monarchy and liberty government. A monarchy is such a form of governing, whereby the supreme state power legally belongs to a person appointed to the highest position of the state in conformity with the established order of succession. At the same time, the liberty government is a state power that is formed through elections, the outcome of which depends only on peoples viewpoints. Therefore, by comparing monarchy and the liberty government, it is necessary to mention that the former is more organized form of government that enables the manifestation of the will of its people as the monarch is the representative of their will and its guarantor, while the nation is a primary source of will in the liberty government that leads to the inability of social protection of citizens.
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The Comparative Analysis of Monarchy and Liberty Government
There two different forms of state such as monarchy and liberty government. The monarchy is one of the oldest forms of government, originating in the somewhere around 3d century BC (Harris, 2005). Thus, in monarchy, the supreme power is vested solely upon the head of state, the monarch, who occupies the throne by inheritance and who does not have to respond to the population for their actions. Moreover, a monarch is the inviolable person in all monarchical countries such as Spain, the UK, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, etc. In turn, liberty government received development only in the 19th century (Paul, 2012). This model of government proclaims the individual principles of personal responsibility of each member of society for their fate and the fate of their family. The role of the state in this model is insignificant. Therefore, in contrast to monarchy, the regulatory mechanisms of liberty state eliminate the concentration of power in the hands of one person.
The main characteristic feature of monarchy is the embodiment of authority in the monarch. Their reign remains due to succession, signifying the transfer of power from one representative of the reigning house (dynasty) to another in accordance with the law. In turn, in liberty government, the power is formed by means of elections. The implementation of the public administration is based on the principle of separation of powers, and the state decisions are made by the majority vote. The main value of liberty state is freedom. Under the notion of freedom, liberty government understands the liberation of individuals from the medieval dependence on the state and workshops (Kisak, 2016). Thus, the main principle of such a government is the right to fully enjoy the fundamental human rights limited only by the freedom of others. As a result, two types of liberty state existed. For example, the bourgeois elite defended the interests and rights of owners and required the intervention of the state in socio-economic relations, while the democratic forces believed that due to the fact that rights had to be extended to all, the state should create appropriate conditions (Kisak, 2016). In turn, there is no such distinction in a monarchy state because the comprehensive ideal of morality exists in the nation in the person of the monarch, and in this case, the supreme domination of the moral ideal does not require the division of government.
In contrast to the states with liberty government, the monarch personalizes the state and acts in the domestic and foreign political fields as the head of the country, the representative of the people who constitute the citizens of the state. Consequently, the monarch implements the sole reign. In turn, liberty government upholds the value of individualism, opposing it to collectivist principles in the political and economic organization of the state (Paul, 2012). Therefore, in opposition to liberty government, monarchy is only possible in the case of people’s voluntary recognition of the power of the monarch. Being associated with the higher force of moral content that fills the faith of people, the monarchical power is not only the representative of the people but also higher power that is the source of people’s ideals.
According to liberty system, individual freedom needs to be protected from interference by other people and the intervention of the government. Therefore, the activities of authorities should be based on the strictly defined laws that recognize the value of individual freedom (Paul, 2012). The government should also respect the concept of private property and the right of people to freely enter into contracts with each other. Another key position of liberty government is the concept of the so-called minimal state (Paul, 2012). It means that the economy should be also free from state interference. The influence of the state in the social sphere should be minimal as well. In general, the government intervention is necessary only in order to eliminate violence and dishonesty, unfairness in the economic and social spheres (Paul, 2012). Furthermore, the state does not have its own objectives, it performs the role of night watchman that protects private property, individual freedoms, but it does not interfere in economic and social relations. Thus, a monarchical state for liberty government is unacceptable.
At the same time, it is necessary to provide a few characteristics of liberty government in terms of its citizens. Firstly, people, who campaign for a radical reform of liberty society, can freely express their views and try to convince other people of their point of view. Secondary, the system, based on freedom, guarantees the highest productivity, which ultimately leads to the greater benefit. Accordingly, the pace of economic development directly depends on freedom that means the sharp growth of economy and production as it occurred in Europe and the United States in the 20th – early 21st centuries (Paul, 2012). Thirdly, pluralism is the necessary attribute of liberty society. It means that a liberty state includes numerous associations, public organizations, corporations, and clubs that unite people with the same interests (Paul, 2012). Nevertheless, the value of liberty government should not be increased as it has its own problems such as the social protection of some categories of citizens and the stratification of society (Paul, 2012). Therefore, the success of this government is possible only in society, characterized by a high level of economic and social development. People should have an adequately high political, moral, and intellectual consciousness.
The concept of freedom is incompatible with monarchy and the indispensable corollary of liberty state. However, in defense of monarchy, one should note that the considerations concerning the incompatibility of freedom with monarchy refer only to an absolutist or despotic monarchy. Thus, this form of governing people has no tasks to form their will since it is the organ of the national will (Monod, 2001). In the formation of government, it is only important for monarchy to remember and keep their own place, the place of the supreme power. Thus, citizens enforce the standards of conduct supported by the monarch to fulfill the requirements of the law (Monod, 2001). The obedience of the citizens of a monarchical state is not the obedience of slaves, but it is free due to the fact that the monarch is considered as the beginning of the nation. Therefore, in obedience to the monarch, the nation, in fact, obeys itself as this submission is voluntary, conscious, and willing.
A huge positive characteristic of monarchy is that it is absolutely necessary for the monarch to store and provide the independent life of the nation. The monarch sets in motion a state apparatus but they do not convert into it themselves. The idea of representation of national will by the elected people, like in a liberty state, contains the complete negation in a monarchy due to the fact that the organ of popular representation in this sense is the monarch themselves (Harris, 2005). Therefore, the concept of a monarchical supreme authority is to express the national spirit and ideals. Thereby, in the liberty state, people are the source of expression of the main ideas that prevail in society, but in a monarchy, the monarch is responsible for such manifestations. In this case, the monarchical idea of popular representation differs sharply from the idea of liberty, and it can be observed in historical practice, which clarifies the very idea of monarchy.
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Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the main features of monarchy and liberty government that distinguish them from each other. Thus, the main principles of liberty government are the absolute value of people and their commitment to freedom expressed in the rights of man and the primacy of human rights over state rights. The liberty government creates the conditions for the legal autonomy of the individual and an unjustified state interference in the personal sphere. The main advantage of monarchy is that it does not require establishing any characteristics of liberty government. The social will exists in the person of the monarch who is the representative of the inner content of the nation and who implements its ideas. Thus, the only real representation of the popular will belongs to the monarch.