Leadership is vital to whichever organization and most importantly it can be the influential factor in triumphant achievement of organizational objectives as well as goals. All Leaders comprise their own distinctive style and flourishing leaders instigate obedience, confidence, respect and loyalty. Stephen Covey described leadership as conversing to people their potential and worth so evidently that they become motivated to perceive the same in themselves (The Leader Formula 2012). This paper aims to basically define managerial leadership and research on the application of managerial leadership on organizations. The spotlight will cover on the influential section of power approach theories, together with weaknesses and strength in the approach.
Managerial Leadership is actually defined as establishing way and influencing other people to pursue the same direction, even though there is a lot more to the definition since leadership has numerous variations and diverse areas of prominence. A universal explanation of managerial leadership highlights that Leaders are presumably persons who, through their dealings, assist the progress of a faction of people in the direction of a universal or even shared goal.
The issue of leadership for ages has been the topic of a good deal investigation that has formed a vast range of results. The type of variable which is mostly emphasized is the classification of leadership theory along with research. There are three variables which are relevant to fully understanding leadership efficiency and they comprise of character of the circumstances, that of followers and leaders (Yukl, 2010). Nevertheless, for a long time now the characteristics of a leader have been highly emphasized.
Situational Leadership Theory
According to Yukl (2010), the situational leadership theory is a leadership theory that argues that there is not one size that fits all when it comes to leading a certain group of people. This led to a contingency theory that was proposed by Hersey and Blanchard (1977) that specified the suitable leadership style for different levels of management according to "maturity". The theory proposes that while a high maturity subordinate has the confidence and ability to perform a given task, the low maturity subordinate lacks the two. The situational leadership theory as a result indentifies suitable leadership performances when confronted with the different levels of maturity according to the task given (Yukl, 2010, p.233). These levels are divided into 4 quadrants: M1-M4.
- M1: This is a type of leadership approach that has followers with very low desire to complete the given task. As a result, the followers shy away from completing their tasks as they fear of failing in their tasks. The communication here between the parties is just one way and therefore, the leader takes a directive role to define the required tasks for the followers and supervise them to make sure that they are completed as scheduled and are not micromanaged.
- M2: This is type of leadership approach that has followers who are willing to work on a given task but are afraid to do so because they are limited by their ability to work on them. As from the M1 type of leadership approach, the leadership here is also expected to play a defining role and guide them to completing their tasks. However, the leaders can look for ideas and give other suggestions amongst the group members. The leader provides support as well as praises the followers he knows is gaining the necessary skills to complete any given future tasks. The leader incorporates groups and he is part of the decision making process that will help build confidence in the group to help them complete future tasks.
- M3: this type of leadership approach is characterized by followers with the ability to work on the task at hand but have a low desire to complete them. Therefore, the leader does not worry about the followers ability to work but ought to find ways on motivating the followers to work. The leader therefore should play a supportive role as the followers only refuse to work despite having the knowhow of what is supposed to be done. The leader needs to listen to the reasoning of his/her followers and then through diplomatic means persuade them to complete their respective tasks the leader ought to praise his followers for tasks completed and when the followers show commitments to complete their tasks.
- M4: this is the last among the four leadership approaches and is characterized when followers have a high desire to complete their tasks and have the ability to do thee. Although the followers here can keep control of the tasks they are working on, they can still communicate vital information to the leader. This is because there is a high level of trust between the followers and the leader. Although the followers at this level need minimal support and guidance, the leader can motivate them.
Yukl (2010; 233) states that according to Hersey and Blanchard, developmental interventions can subordinate the maturity level. This implies that a leader can influence the level of a subordinate maturity. This is done by increasing the subordinate responsibility and setting up goals for their achievement and making it clear of what is expected of them. Although the situational theory leadership approach is used by many management programs, Yukl (2010; 235), suggests that research shows little evidence is available it does make leaders more effective. This is because from M1 to M4, leadership behavior is not clearly defined and their behaviors do not clearly show the influence of the leaders' performance. In spite of the weakness, situational leadership theory shows that leadership behavior is flexible and can easily adjust to people's behavior and in different situations.
The kind of approach commonly attempts to recognize leadership efficiency with respect to the type and amount of power which is held by a leader. Moreover, the approach looks at how leadership power is obtained, maintained, or lost (Walonick 1993). Yukl (2010) affirmed that power-influence studies examine the influence progressions between the leaders with other people. Similar to a good number of researches on behavior and traits, several of the power-influencing research acquires a perspective of leader-centered with an indirect supposition that fundamentality is shifting where the leaders take action and the followers at the same time react.
This approach dwells on explaining leadership efficiency through the type and amount of power which is managed by a specific leader and more so how the power is implemented. Power in leadership is vital not simply for influencing the subordinates in an organization but as well for influencing the people, superiors, and peers outside the certain organization, like the suppliers and clients/customers. The preferred system has been the employment of assessment questionnaires to recount a leader's power to a variety of actions of leadership efficacy (Yukl 2010). To a great extent, the study underneath the approach of power-influence endeavors to explicate leadership efficiency with regard to the quantity of power held by a specific leader, the forms of power, as well as how the power is applied.
Power is essential for the purpose of influencing the different stakeholders found in an organization, for instance, the subordinates, superiors, peers, and even those people who are external the organization, like suppliers and clients/customers (Dobel 2005).
There are diverse sources and types of power and ordinarily power is identified as the potential influence or more deeply as the realized or enacted influence. The element of power can be manipulated over the behaviors and attitudes of people, and furthermore got influence over actions (Yukl, 1989). There happened to be a peculiarity that is received between individual power from a person's attributes, and the position power which is attributed to a particular situation.
Consequently, power is able to be gained and also lost by the leaders and apparently the amount of authority gained by signifying proficiency in solving troubles is dependent on how imperative the issues are for all the other operations within the organizational components and mainly for the general performance of the entire organization. Attaining and maintaining influence is majorly dependent on the degree that the individual who is in this case the leader has exceptional resources and skills that are complicated to replace (Yukl, 1989).
A leadership's power is exercised through principally determining if it outcomes in fervent commitment, submissive conformity, or obstinate resistance. Successful leaders apply both individual power and position power in a understated, easy manner that minimizes position discrepancies and circumvent pressure to the sense of worth of the subordinates. Those leaders who implement power or rather authority in a domineering, manipulative, and egotistical manner are probable to face confrontation from the stakeholders and mostly the human resources team (Yukl, 1989). Effectual leaders employ a range of plans or rather strategies and selective choose the ones which are suitable for a specific situation. The preference of influence procedures differ with the standing of the indented individual and the purpose of the authority attempt (Yukl, 1989).
Determining the amount or level of power a certain leader ought to have so that he/she has the necessary efficiency to delegate their duties is dependent on the subordinates, task, and most importantly the kind of the entire organization. The leaders who don't have adequate position power which is necessary in applying important changes, reward the proficient subordinates or rather employees, and discipline or even expel the chronic agitators in an organization will definitely find it complex to build up a high achieving organization (Yukl, 1989).
Strengths and Weaknesses
The chief strength of the leadership approach of power-influence towards managerial leadership is that a manager or rather leader can inspire efficiently all the individuals in an organization to successfully complete the desired objectives. This sort of approach is effectual in organizations which actually have a structure which is hierarchical in nature. The major weakness of this kind of approach is because it is reliant on the organization's followers to accomplish the given out orders. If at all the followers decline to comply with their leader's orders, then that manager will eventually lose authority to influence the stakeholders and more so to obtain the organizational objectives.
I am employed at a large foodstuffs producing company in the mainland in the office of sales and marketing office. Apparently several high ranking officials of the company also have their offices in the same building. The superior Vice President of the company seemingly manages about $2.5 billion in the company business and he formulates and aligns her vision and mission for the department of sales and marketing and for the entire team which is responsible for the department and we are able to achieve the confidence manager's rank with our clients/customers and most importantly solve their trade issues with the company's technological advancements. She acquires her power by connecting with persons and moreover presenting on the way the Business Value Approach (BVA) operates with the assistance of the 5 Business Disciplines which generally forms the business strategies for the company's success (McGrath 009).
Leaders want and expect from followers competency in their skills and time span for accomplishing tasks. Additionally respect for the person of the leader. The Leader has an expectation that when value is offered to the subordinate, training and learning work their capabilities to complete a task.
There are numerous fashions of administrative or rather managerial leaders since not all the manager have the same leading skills, and some of these types include: A visionary Leader is the one who is able to articulate where an organization is heading to, and not how the organization will reach there. These kinds of leaders have a propensity to set their human resources and subordinates free to carry on innovations and even experiment, and furthermore they allow them to take risks during the operation of the organization (Powell 2006).
There is the coaching leader who focuses entirely on developing the human resources, and showing them on ways of improving their operational performance, along with assisting them to attach their personal goals to those goals laid down by the organization. Therefore, managerial leadership works well when the leader solely becomes the role model of the staff and coach them accordingly towards becoming a performing lot and this approach operates best when the human resources takes up the initiative positively and more so who are eager to acquire further professional development. However, it might rebound if at all the employees feel that they are being micromanaged.
The associative leader generally emphasizes on the significance of undertaking team work, as this forms synchronization within the organization through by connecting the entire staff to each other. The affiliative technique can be important when intending to amplify the team's harmony and more so enhance their morale, advance communication or even refurbish broken confidence in the organization (Dobel 2005).
The democratic managerial leader is known to draw on employees' skills and knowledge and therefore creates a collective group obligation to the organizational goals and strategies and also the resulting goals. This sort of approach may possibly work greatest when the organization's direction is apparently unclear, and so the managerial leader requires to wisely tap the joint knowledge of the organization's human resources. This technique can turn out to be catastrophic in events of predicament, when pressing events require quick decisions.
Personal Development Plan
Within a period of two years I will come up with a personal development plan of becoming a managerial leader in the post of human resource manager. The discussion below shows some of the measurable and realistic qualities acquired within this period. To be good leader I must be capable of directing the resources of any organization more effectively. Srivastava, (2005) explains the best qualifications of a good managerial leader. They include:
- Capacity for Hard Wor
Leaders should demonstrate a large capacity for work. They should be willing to work for long hours and also tackle jobs that other people shun. Hard work and long hours are basic ingredients for achievement
- Capacity to Inspire People
Managerial leadership is usually considered as the capability of a manager to guide and motivate his people to work towards achieving their objectives in the firm. It is in general believed that good leaders are born and not be made. This shows that people had certain inborn qualities which make them leaders. Therefore the managerial leader should have the capacity to inspire and influence subordinates to execute their duties efficiently.
Probably the most mentioned attitude is empathy. This is the ability of a manager to put himself in the other fellow's shoes. If the leader is to understand the worker's feelings about his job and the company, he must be able to project himself into the situation as the worker sees it.
An additional attitude the leader should have is self-awareness. It involves knowing yourself, how you appear to other people and how you affect them. A manager who knows his image should be fair in his dealings with his team.
Leaders should have the ability to project enthusiasm. Enthusiastic leaders tackle their jobs with excitement and interest.
Leaders should not be afraid to accept responsibilities. They should also be responsible to themselves and understand that authentic leaders eat well and have good exercise. In fact, leaders should in most of their time go out of their way to look for responsibilities.
Leadership is a continuous and dynamic process. It is a daily task of inspiring and guiding subordinates so that they can improve their performance and contribution towards organizational objectives.
Psychologists and business people have developed helpful and uncomplicated ways to explain the main styles of leadership. As a result of understanding these styles and their impacts one can develop his own approach to leadership and turn out to be a more successful leader ( Rao & Rao 2005). These leadership styles will be learned in a course will enroll in the following year so that I can acquire a varied scope of the best leadership style. Through the study I will be able to diligently select the very best style. They include:
- Transactional Leadership
In this style of leadership the leader has a right to punish the members in the team if their work does not meet the required standards. It involves paying the team members in terms of their compliance and effort.
- Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have complete power over their people. There is simply one way to do anything which is the leader's way. In this style the leader is the final and does no require excuses in course of the duties. The staff and team members have little chance to make suggestions for the organization.
- Laissez-Faire Leadership
This type of leadership style describes leaders who allow their people to work on their own and can occur naturally when managers don't have adequate control over their people and work.
- Task-Oriented Leadership
Task-oriented leaders focus simply on having the job done and leaders may have complete power over their people. They define the roles and work required, monitor, plan and organize work and put structures in place. They also perform other important tasks such as maintaining and creating performance standards.
- Servant Leadership
Here the leader is often not officially recognized. A servant leader leads simply by meeting the needs of the team within the organization .Servant leaders in most a times lead by example. They usually leadwithgenerosityand have high integrity.
- Transformational Leadership
This an inspiring type of leadership because leader s expect the very best from the team members which leads to high productivity. There is engagement from everyone in the organization.
Leaders have the ability to inspire and influence the people they are leading to follow in their direction and help achieve organizational goals. Therefore, leadership is vital to whichever organization and it can be the influential factor in triumphant achievement of organizational objectives as well as goals. All Leaders comprise their own distinctive style and flourishing leaders instigate obedience, confidence, respect and loyalty. The paper has defined managerial leadership and researched on the application of managerial leadership on organizations covering on the influential section of power approach theories, together with weaknesses and strength in the approach. Leaders are made and not born hence the fact that if a person has the aspiration and the resolve, they can become effective leaders. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of education, self-study, training and experience.