Project Management Institute (PMI) defines five process groups in project management. They are the initiating process, planning process, executing process, monitoring and controlling process and finally the closing process group (PMP). The groups depend on each other and are performed in the same order within each project. Such groups as individual process group and individual constituent processes usually repeat over and over before the project is completed. Constituent processes may also have interactions within a process group and also among process groups (Ritter, 2008).
The most important process group
As earlier stated, the processes depend on each other, because the sequence of the operations is performed in the same way in all projects. The aim of the initiating process group is to define the project and authorize it while the planning process group detects and improves on the objectives. The latter also schedules the time for the procedure needed obtain the objectives and the framework that the project was designed to address. Executing process group, on the other hand, brings various resources together to enable the project management of the whole project while monitoring and controlling process group checks and evaluates the progress (Ritter, 2008). The most important process group is planning since it is repetitive and has the most processes and the project manager will refer to this group most of the time (PMP).
Differences between project-oriented and functional organizational structures in terms of their effects on project management
Project oriented organizations consist of team members that are usually collocated with most of the resources in the organization used in the project. The managers have more authority and independence with organizational units divided into departments that report to the project manager or offer support services to various units. Functional organizations, on the other hand, have projects but their scope is confined within the functional boundaries. Departments do their project work independently of each other, and the structure is suitable for team members who wish to pursue clear career paths at the end of the project (Ritter, 2008).
Why the functional organization structure will be better than project-oriented organizations structure for some projects.
The functional organization will be better for some projects than the project oriented especially those projects that will take long to recur again. While the project-based will retain the team members after completion of the project, the functional organization structure has members pursing other careers at the end of the project (Ritter, 2008).